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Correlational findings

Study Williams (2003): study US 1986

Public:
24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2348
Non Response:
n=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Continuity in marital status
Our Classification
Operationalization
Continually unmarried (vs continually married) during the last 3 to 4 years
a: never married
b: divorced or separated
c: widowed

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = -.20 p < .05 a: never married         (vs continually married) O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = -.48 p < .001 b: divorced or separated (vs continually married) O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = -.31 p < .001 c: widowed               (vs continually married)

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Similar for males and females

Reversed among low harmony couples: both men and woman who remained married in spite of low marital harmony at T1 report significantly less happiness at T2 than the continuously unmarried.