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Correlational findings

Study Williams (2003): study US 1986

Public:
24+ aged, USA, followed 1986-1994
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2348
Non Response:
n=723 in 1989 and 1994.
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Change in marital status
Our Classification
Operationalization
During the last 3 to 4 years
A: Change out of marriage (vs continually married)
   a: divorced
   b: widowed
B: Change into first marriage (vs continually never married)
C: Change into remarriage (vs continually separated or divorced)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I = T1-T2 CHANGE in marital status by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = -.34 p < .05 Aa: Divorced
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at T1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = -.40 p < .001 Ab: Widowed
    Slightly positive among Ss in bad marriage at T1
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = +.52 p < .001 B: married for first time O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-I b = +.19 ns C: Remarried

B's controled for:
- race
- education
- children
- household income
- employment
- age and age squared

Negative effect of widowhood stronger among females
No gender difference in effect of divorce, first marriage and remarriage

Change out of marriage