Correlational findings

Study Moon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004

65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
Survey name:
Unnamed study
N = 425
Non Response:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire delivered to respondents by the chairpersons of the neighborhood association or the investigator


Authors's label
Our Classification
Depression status was measured by the short version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15):
Choose the best answer for how you have felt over the past week:
a: Are you basically satisfied with your life?
b: Have you dropped many of your activities and interests?
c: Do you feel that your life is empty?
d: Do you often get bored?
e: Are you in good spirits most of the time?
f: Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen to you?
g: Do you feel happy most of the time?
h: Do you often feel helpless?
i: Do you prefer to stay at home, rather than going out and doing new things?
j: Do you feel you have more problems with memory than most?
k: Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now?
l: Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now?
m: Do you feel full of energy?
n: Do you feel that your situation is hopeless?
o: Do you think that most people are better off than you are?

Classified as:
1:6-9 mild depression
2:10 or more severe depression

1: yes
0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-a r = -.06 p < .001 O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-a Beta = -.55 p < .001 Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
- public assistance
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease