Correlational findings

Study Bowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001

65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
Survey name:
Omnibus Survey
N = 999
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face
Interviews took place in the homes of respondents. They lasted between 60-90 minutes.


Authors's label
Social comparison and expectations
Our Classification
Self report on 5 questions:
A: I would like you to think about your current living conditions and financial situation. Compared with what you had when you were in your forties, which of these statements best applies to you?
-'Compared to those around you (those like yourself, and who you compare yourself with), which statements best applies to you?
1:'I am a lot worse off' to
5'I am a lot better off';

B: Aspirations in life
Thinking about the things you have done in your life and the things you would like to have done, which statement on the card best applies to you?
1: 'I have done none of the things I wanted to do' to
5: 'I have done everything I wanted to do';

and expectations ('And compared with what you expected you would have at this time in your life when you were in your forties, would you say you had…..',
1:'More than expected' to
3:'Less than expected' ('GAP')

D: Health expectations and comparisons: ‘Compared with how you
expected your health to be at this time in your life, is your current
health: Better, the same, or worse than you expected’
-In general. Compared with other people your age, would you say that your current health is Excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?’

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-a r = -.27 O-GBB-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = -.15 p < .001 Beta controlled for:
- personality
- health
- health values
- social capital
- age
- gender
- socioeconomic status