Correlational findings

Study Michalos et al. (2007): study CA British Columbia 2005

Elderly, British Columbia, Canada, 2005
N = 656
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Replication of a similar survey in 1999


Authors's Label
Index of Troubles
Our Classification
Index of Troubles; average on 12 items.
1 = strongly disagree 5 = strongly agree.
a. I worry about my ability to operate bank machines.
b. Most people treat me like a stereotypical older person rather than like an individual.
c. I have little opportunity to influence public policy.
d. I have little opportunity to interact with young people.
e. There are enough stores in my area so that shopping is convenient.
f. There are stores in my area but they are difficult to access.
g. The stores in my area do not carry supplies that fit many of my needs.
h. I am frustrated by automated phone service that prevents me from speaking
to a person.
i. I worry about stray dogs harming me when I go out in town or in local parks. j. In winter I try to avoid going out because there is too much ice on walkways in my area.
k. If I could afford to leave the neighbourhood I am now living in, I would move.
l. The neighbourhood in which I am now living is a good place to retire. Items 6 and 12 reverse coded.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-g Beta = ns O-SQL-c-sq-v-7-b Beta = ns O-HL-u-sq-v-7-f Beta = ns Beta's controlled for:
- mental health
- social support
- crime-relatred worries
- difficulty meeting housing costs
- % of income spent on housing cost
- satisfaction with:
  - family
  - living partner
  - friendships
  - romantic relationships
  - feeling part of community
  - housing
  - neighbourhood
  - health
  - financial security
  - recreation
  - self-esteem
  - government officials
  - sense of meaning of life
  - achievements in life
  - future society
C-Sum-u-mq-n-7-b Beta = -.20 p < .05 Beta' s controlled for:
-crime-related worries index        (Beta -.14)
-difficulty meeting housing costs   (Beta -.13)
-% of income spent on housing costs (Beta -.15)

(18% of variance explained)
C-Sum-u-mq-n-7-b Beta = .00 ns Beta's additionally controlled for:
-mental health               (+.15)
-satisfaction with:
  -romantic relationships    (+.13)
  -feeling part of community (+.12)
  -health                    (+.24)
  -recreation                (+.11)
  -future security           (+.20)

(48% of variance explained)