Correlational findings

Study VanSantvoort (2009): study ZZ Europe 2005

15+ aged, general public, 9 European countries, 2005
N = 14889
Non Response
30 %
Interview: face-to-face
Most studies based on face-to-face interviews


Authors's Label
Feeling optimistic and energetic
Our Classification
Because the scale has been reversed, higher values correspond to larger feeling of optimism and energy.
Self report on 5 questions:
How often have you felt like this over the last two weeks:
-  Felt cheerful and in good spirits
- Felt calm and relaxed
- Felt active and vigorous
- Woken up feeling fresh and rested
- Daily life has been filled with things that interest me.

Rated: (1) all of the time to (6) "at no time".

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum-*-mq-n-11-b Beta = +.34 p < .001 Beta controlled for:
- hampered in daily activities by disability
- socio-demographic variables
- socio-economic variables
- self assessed health
- feeling about household income
- social participation

Beta's similar in:
- Belgium
- Germany
- Denmark
- Netherlands
- Slovenia
- Slovakia

Beta's highest in:
- Finland  (+.416)
- United Kingdom (+.404)