Correlational findings

Study Becchetti et al. (2010a): study XZ Germany West 1984

17-76 aged, general public, Germany, followed 23 years 1984-2007
N = 156232
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face
individual observations


Authors's Label
Social leisure time
Our Classification
Assessed 8 times between 1984-2007: in waves 1984-86, 1988, 1992, 1994-99, 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007
Selfreport on  five questions:
Which of the following activities do you take part in during your free time?
a: social gatherings
b: cultural events
c: sports
d: volunteer work
e: church or religious events

Rated :
4: at least once a week
3: at least once a month
2: less often
1: never

Summation weighed for intensity of social leisure
4:    highest intensity
1:    second highest intensity
1/12: third highest intensity
0:    lowest intensity

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-u-sq-n-10-b b = +.12 p < .01 CHANGE in leisure by CHANGE in happiness (fixed effect analysis)
B controled for:
- income
- education
- children in the household
- marital status
- occupation
- age
- health

Similar among
- males and females
- East and west Germany
O-SLu-u-sq-n-10-b b = Additional analysis of retirees in a region shows a negative effect on males and a positive effect on females, which indicates a differential causal effect.