Correlational findings

Study Holder et al. (2010): study CA 2005

8-12 aged children, 2 schools, Canada, 200?
N = 320
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Spiritual practice/ belief
Our Classification
Eleven items were selected from the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) which assesses spirituality and religiousness and was adapted for children
Practice and Belief Scale(PBS):
- Religious pracice:
  - How often do you go to a place of worship such as a church?
  - How often do you pray or meditate privately outside of church or other place of worship?
  - I read religious or spiritual books or magazines
- Belief in a higher power:
  - I feel a higher power’s presence
  - I believe in a higher power who watches over me
  - I feel a higher power’s love for me
  - I desire to be closer to a higher power
- Spirituality’s role in coping and everyday life:
  - How often do you find strength and comfort in your religion or spirituality?
  - When you are worried or have a problem, how often do you depend on your religion or spirituality to help you?
  - I try hard to use my religious or  spiritual beliefs in all parts of my life
- Overall self-perception of religiousness or spirituality: Do you think of yourself as a religious or spiritual person?

Rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale from 1 (never) to 7 (very often).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-a r = +.17 ns Child's rating of own happiness A-AOL-g-sq-f-7-a Beta = +.10 ns A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-a r = +.05 ns Parents rating of child's happiness A-AOL-g-rdf-f-7-a Beta = -.08 ns

Beta's controlled for child's:
- gender
- school
- temperament
  - shyness
  - emotionality
  - sociability
  - activity
- spirituality
  - personal
  - communal  
  - environmental  
  - transcendental

Additional variance explained by spiritual practice/beliefs after gender, school and temperatement:
- 0,5% of child's rating of own happiness (ns)
- 0,0% of parents rating of childs happiness (ns)