Correlational findings

Study Joseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995

18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
N = 194
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's Label
Depression (CES-D)
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Alpha = .91
Radloff (1977).Depression measured with Center for Epidemological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
M 14,23 SD 10,87 Range 0-51
Self-report on questions:
1. I was bothered by things that don't usually bother me.
2. I did not feel like eating, my apetite was poor.
3. I felt that I could not shake off the blues even with the help of my family or friends.
4. I felt that I was just as good as other people.
5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.
6. I felt depressed.
7. I felt everything I did was an effort.
8. I felt hopeful about the future.
9. I thought my life had been a failure.
10. I felt fearful.
11. My sleep was restless.
12. I was happy.
13. I talked less than usual.
14. I felt lonely.
15. People were unfriendly.
16. I enjoyed life.
17. I had crying spells.
18. I felt sad.
19. I felt that people disliked me.
20. I could not get "going".

Rarely or none of the time (<1 day)
Some or a little of the time (1-2 days)
Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 days)
Most or all of the time (5-7 days)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-a r = -.85 p < .001