Correlational findings

Study Joseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995

18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
N = 194
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's Label
Depression (SDS)
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Alpha 0.85
Zung (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS).
m 38,01 SD 8,47 Range 21-59
Self-report on 20 questions:
1. I feel down-hearted and blue          
2. Morning is when I feel the best          
3. I have crying spells or feel like it         
4. I have trouble sleeping at night         
5. I eat as much as I used to         
6. I still enjoy sex         
7. I notice that I am losing weight          
8. I have trouble with constipation         
9. My heart beats faster than usual          
10. I get tired for no reason         
11. My mind is as clear as it used to be         
12. I find it easy to do the things I used to         
13. I am restless and can't keep still         
14. I feel hopeful about the future          
15. I am more irritable than usual          
16. I find it easy to make decisions          
17. I feel that I am useful and needed         
18. My life is pretty full         
19. I feel that others would be better off if I were dead         
20. I still enjoy the things I used to do

Rated: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-a r = -.81 p < .001