Correlational findings

Study Joseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995

18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
N = 194
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's Label
Depression (BDI)
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Alpha .85
Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh (1961); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
M 7.33 SD 6.54 Range 0-29
Self-report on 21 questions.
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3)
indicating the severity of symptoms.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-a r = -.75 p < .001