Correlational findings

Study Bjornskov (2008a): study US 1993

18+aged, general public, 9 regions, USA, 1983-1998
N = 60200
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Formal sociability
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Eigenvalue of factor: 3,922
Average number of activities of citizens per state, assessed in 1983 and 1998.
Mean  -0,004; Min  -0,234 (Nevada); Max +0,191 (South Dakota)
Selfreport of participation in the following activities:
-did volunteer work
-worked on a community project
-went to a club meeting
-attended a lecture
-attended church or other place of worship
-went to a classical concert
-visited an art gallery or museum
-gave or attended a dinner party
-sent a greeting card

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLP-c-sq-n-6-a r = +.27 Level of average happiness by level of formal sociability in 9 US-regions over 16 years over 1983-1998 (cross-esectional). O-SLP-c-sq-n-6-a Beta = +.04 ns CHANGE in average happiness by CHANGE in average formal sociability in 9 US-regions over 16 years over 1983-1998

Beta (+0,40) controlled for:
-regional fixed effects, such that only changes in the variables are captured while longer-run effects and the potential influence of stable stocks of social capital are not considered.
-social trust
-informal sociability
-log Gross State Product (GSP) per capita
-GSP relative to USA-GDP
O-SLP-c-sq-n-6-a Beta = -.19 ns Beta (-0,193) if additionally controlled for changes at individual level by analyzing the residuals of individual-level analysis.