Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995

Adults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s
N = 150000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Political freedom
Our Classification
Expert rating on 9 items of political rights:
a) State leader elected through free and fair elections.
b) Legislative representatives elected through free and fair elections.
c) Fair electoral laws, equal campaigning opportunities, fair polling and honest tabulation of ballots.
d) Freely elected representatives have real power.
e) Right to organize in political parties, system open to rise and fall of competing groups.
f) Realisric possibility for opposition, de facto opposition power.
g) National independence.
h) Influence of minority groups.
i) Political power decentralized.

Index range 1-7, high scores meaning more suppression an less democracy. (Reversed here)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-a r = +.48 Average happiness by political freedom in 90 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-a rpc = +.17 rpc controlled for purchasing power per head