Correlational findings

Study Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2

18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
N = 73
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
T1, T6, T11: take-home pakets of questionnaires T2-T5, T7-T10: in-class questionnaires


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Error Estimates
α = .72
Assesed at T1
M=3.89, SD=4.22
At the beginning of the semester participants named 3 goals "that we think about, plan for, carry out, and sometimes (though not always) complete or succeed at".

Reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 statements:
- "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants you to or because the situation demands it." (external reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you would feel ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected reason)
- "you pursue this striving because you really believe it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
- "you pursue this striving because of the fun and enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this rason) to 9 (completely because of this reason)

To form an composite value external and introjected ratings were averaged and subtracted from the summed averages of intrinsic and identified ratings

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a r = +.29 p < .05 T1 happiness by T1 selfconcordance M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a r = +.39 p < .05 T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a Beta = +.19 p < .05 T11 happiness by T1 self-concordance
Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)
- semester goal attainment
- interaction between self-concordance and goal attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of semester, T11: 3 months later