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Correlational findings

Study Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994

Public
18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
Sample
Respondents
N = 169
Non Response
Assessment
Questionnaire: paper
T1+T5: in-class questionnaires T2-T4: questionnaires within lab-sessions

Correlate

Authors's Label
Semester effort
Our Classification
Error Estimates
α=.93
Remarks
T2-T4: Assessed 3 times during 3 month semester
Distribution
M=5.72, SD=1.33
Operationalization
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they would be "typically or characteristically trying to do in daily life"

3 times during semester participants answered for all 10 goals the question "How hard are you trying in pursuing this striving?"

Rated 1 (not at all hard) to 9 (very hard)

Semester effort variable was formed by averaging the 30 ratings

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a r = +.34 p < .05 T1 happiness by T2-T4 effort M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a r = +.40 p < .05 T5 happiness by T2-T4 effort

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of semester, T5: 3 months later