Correlational findings

Study Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994

18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
N = 169
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
T1+T5: in-class questionnaires T2-T4: questionnaires within lab-sessions


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Error Estimates
M=3.89, SD=3.47
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they would be "typically or characteristically trying to do in daily life"

next they reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 statements:
a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants you to or because the situation demands it." (external reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this reason) to 9 (completely for this reason)

Self-concordance: (e+d)-(a+b)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a r = +.29 p < .05 T1 happiness by T1 self-concordance M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a r = +.19 p < .05 T5 happiness by T1 self-concordance M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a Beta = ns Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T1-T5 change in happiness)
- goal attainment during semester
- interaction between goal attainment and self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a Beta = +.11 p < .05 Positive when going together with goal attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of semester, T5: 3 months later