Correlational findings

Study Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994

18+ aged, students USA, followed 3 months,199?
N = 169
Non Response:
Questionnaire: paper
T1+T5: in-class questionnaires T2-T4: questionnaires within lab-sessions


Authors's label
Our Classification
At beginning of semester subjects listed 10 things they would be "typically or characteristically trying to do in daily life"

next they reported reasons for pursuing each striving on 4 statements:
a "you pursue this striving because somebody else wants you to or because the situation demands it." (external reason)
b "you pursue this striving because you would feel ashamed, guilty, or anxious if you didn't."(introjected reason)
c "you pursue this striving because you really believe it's an important goal to have." (identified reason)
d "you pursue this striving because of the fun and enjoyment that it provides you." (intrinsic reason)

Rated 1 (not at all for this reason) to 9 (completely for this reason)

Self-concordance: (e+d)-(a+b)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-AO-cm-mq-v*-12-a r = +.29 p < .05 T1 happiness by T1 self-concordance M-AO-cm-mq-v*-12-a r = +.19 p < .05 T5 happiness by T1 self-concordance M-AO-cm-mq-v*-12-a Beta = ns Beta controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indication T1-T5 change in happiness)
- goal attainment during semester
- interaction between goal attainment and self-concordance
M-AO-cm-mq-v*-12-a Beta = +.11 p < .05 Positive when going together with goal attainment

Happiness assessed at: T1: at beginning of semester, T5: 3 months later