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Correlational findings

Study Kohler et al. (2005): study DK 2002

Public:
20-70 aged identical twins, Denmark, 2002
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 3226
Non Response:
26%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's label
at least one child
Our Classification
Operationalization
0 no
1 yes

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g = WITHIN MONOZYGOTIC TWIN-PAIR DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g Beta = -/+ ns Beta’s controlled for:
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership
- interaction between currently in partnership
- at least one child

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.16 (ns)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = -.08 (ns)
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g Beta = -/+ s Beta’s controlled for:
- number of additional children
- currently in partnership
- remaining with the same partner as for the first child

- females aged 25-45 years: Beta = +.22 (01)
- males aged 50-70 years: Beta = -.01 (ns)

Regression analysis with following controlled variables yield similar results:
- number of additonal children, currently in partnership, remaining with the same partner as for the first child, number of stepchildren
- number of additonal children, currently in parnership, first birth at or before age 21

also the interaction between partnership and at least one child does not matter
O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g = BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-g = Regressions across all subjects yield similar results, except:
- females, controlled for number of additional children, currently in partnership and interaction between currently in partnership and at least one child Beta = -.06 (ns)
- females, controlled for number of additional children, currently in partnership and remaining with the same partner as for the child Beta = +.00 (ns)
- females, controlled for number of additional children, currently in partnership, remaining with the same partner as for the child  and number of stepchildren Beta = +.00 (ns)
- females, controlled for number of additional children, currently in partnership and first birth at or before age 21 Beta = +.04 (ns)
- males, controlled for number of additional children, currently in partnership and first birth at or before age 21 Beta = +.10 (05)