Correlational findings

Study Maltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004

Students, United Kingdom, 2005
N = 244
Non Response
not reported
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Positive cognition
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Cronbach 's alpha for subscale: >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional forgiveness of another person for a specific transgressing. For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127
Selfreport on following questions:
Indicate for every item a number that corresponds best with you current thoughts. I think that he/she is:
1. a decent personality
2. respectful
3. loving
4. a good person
5. nice
When considering this person:
6. I wish him/her all the best
7. I think well of him/her
8. I hope that he/she does well in his/her life
9. I hope he she will succeed in life
10.I hope she/he will find happiness.
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more forgiving response)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b r = +.30 p < .01 A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b Beta = +.03 ns Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative cognition
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive behaviour