Correlational findings

Study Maltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004

Students, United Kingdom, 2005
N = 244
Non Response
not reported
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Negative behavior
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Cronbach 's alpha for subscale : >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional forgiveness of another person for a specific transgressing. For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127
Selfreport on following questions.
When considering this person, how would you react or how are you reacting:
1. to avoid him/her
2. to ignore him/her
3. not paying attention to him/her
4. to put him/her in his/her place
5. to speak ill of him/her
6. not take notice of him/her
7. not speak to him/her
8. to treat him her in a negative way
9. to stay away from him/her be very sharply when you speak with him/her.
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more forgiving response)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b r = -.26 p < .01 A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b r = +.06 ns Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative cognition
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour