Correlational findings

Study Maltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004

Students, United Kingdom, 2005
N = 244
Non Response
not reported
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Negative cognition
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Cronbach 's alpha for subscale : >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional forgiveness of another person for a specific transgressing. For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127
Selfreport on following questions.
Indicate for every item the number that best fits your current thoughts.I think that he/she is:
1. contemptible
2. really bad
3. horrible
5. frightening
4. worth nothing
6. immoral
7. corrupt
8. a bad person
When condidering this person,
9. I disapprove of him/her
10.I reject him/her
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more forgiving response)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b r = -.35 p < .01 A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b Beta = +.51 ns Beta controlled for:
- Negative affect
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour