Correlational findings

Study Maltby et al. (2005): study GB 2004

Students, United Kingdom, 2005
N = 244
Non Response
not reported
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Negative affect
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Cronbach 's alpha for subscale : >0.93; Test retest reliability: >0.67
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI; Subkoviak et al, 1995). The inventory measures non-dispositional forgiveness of another person for a specific transgression. For subscale see J. Orathinkal et al., Further Validation of the Dutch Version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory in: Community Mental Health Journal, 2007, Vol.43, 109-127
Selfreport on following questions.
Indicate for every item a number that corresponds best with you current feeling.
1. I've got negative feelings towards hem/her
2. I've got hostile feelings towards him/her
3. I don't feel loved by him/her
4. I feel disgrace for him/her
5. I've hidden anger towards him/her
6. I'm angry with him/her
7. He/She leaves me cold
8. I don't like him/her
9. I feel bitterness against him/her
10.He disgusts me
Rated on a 6-point numerical scale of agreement-disagreement (larger values indicate a more forgiving response)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b r = -.27 p < .01 A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-b Beta = +.21 ns Beta controlled for:
- Negative cognition
- Negative behaviour
- Positive affect
- Positive cognition
- Positive behaviour