Correlational findings

Study Michalos & Zumbo (2003): study CA British Columbia 1999

18+ aged, general public, British Columbia, USA, 1999
N =
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Psychological benefits (of leisure)
Our Classification
Error Estimates
α = .85,
N = 440
M = 4,1
Self report on 13 questions about rewards of leisure;
a I freely choose the activities I do in my leisure time
b: My leisure activities are very interesting to me
c: I emjoy doing my leisure activities
d: I am frustrated in my free time
e: My leisure activities give me self confidence
f: My leisure activities give me a sense of accomplishment
g: I use many different skills and abilities in my leisure activities
h: I consider my leisure activities a waste of time
i: When I am doing leisure activities I become fully involved in the activity
j: My choice of leisure activities are limited by my lack of skills
k: I feel lonely in my free time
l: My leisure activities are intellectually challinging
m: Generally, my leisure activits have a positive effect upon my life

Rated strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-7-f Beta = +.42 Beta controled for
- perceived aesthetic benefits from leisure