Correlational findings

Study Jacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998

'Back to the landers', USA 1998
N =
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Discrepancy: HFP-ES gap
Our Classification
Discrepancy between the actual homestead food production and the selfrated importance ecological sensitivity

HFP: percentage of a family's food that the respondents reported was produced on ther mini-homesteads

ES: Selfreport on Ecological Sensitivity, rated importance of:
- the expanion of wilderness areas
- preserving old growth forests
- providing habitat for endangered species
- recycling newspapers
- reducing personal energy consumption
Rated 1 (very important) to 4 (not at all important)

GAP: The value scales and performance indexes were dichotomized at their empirical midpoints (medians) and then cross-tabulated with each other. The survey respondents then fell into one of four categories: (1) low values/low performance (“no gap”), (2) high values/low performance (“gap”), (3) low values/high performance (“gap”), and (4) high values/high performance (“no gap”). These gaps (or absence of gaps) are calculated for both performance indicators (TSR Index and HFP) and for each of the three value scales (Country Asceticism, Homestead Production and Ecological Sensitivity).
The first step to the comparability of the variables is to normalize each indicator and then place the respondents’ scores along a normalized distribution as t-scores with means of 50 and standard deviations of 10. With respondents possessing comparable scores for each of the key indicators which constitute the values-performance discrepancies, a “gap score” for each value-performance pair was calculated by subtracting normalized performance scores from normalized value scores.
To faciliate interpretation they just used a subsample with values higher than the median for Technological Self-Reliance Index (TSR), Country Ascetisism (CA), Homestead Production (HP) and Ecological Sensitivity (ES) for further analysis

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-H?-c-sq-v-5-b r = -.28 p < .005 O-H?-c-sq-v-5-b Beta = -.05 ns Beta controlled for
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual homestead food production
- gap: importance of ecological sensitivity / actual use of technology
- gap: importance of homestead production / actual use of technology
- gap: importance of cultual ascetiscism / actual homestead food production