Correlational findings

Study Ahuvia & Wong (1995): study US 1994

University students, Michigan, USA, 1994
N = 200
Non Response:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's label
Materialism as a personal trait
Our Classification
Materialism scale of Ger and Belk (1993), consists of 4 subscales:

A Possessiveness:
possessiveness as the inclination and tendency to retain control or ownership of one's possessions.
Consists of 4 items, e.g. "I get very upset if something is stolen from me, even if it has little monetary value."

B Nongenerosity:
Nongenerosity as an unwillingness to give possessions to or share possessions with others.
Consists of 9 items, e.g. I don't like to lend things, evone to good friends."

C Envy:
Envy as a displeasure or ill will at the superiority of another perosn in happiness, success, reputation, or the possession of anything desirable.
Consists of 5 items, e.g. "there are certain people I would like to trade places with."

D Preservation:
Preservation as the conservation of events, experiences, and memories in material form.
Consists of 3 items, e.g. "when I travel I like to take a lot of photographs."

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a r = -.02 ns Possessiveness subscale O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a r = -.16 p < .05 Nongenerosity subscale O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a r = -.29 p < .001 Envy subscale O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a r = +.05 ns Preservation subscale O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a r = -.18 p < .01 Total scale