Correlational findings

Study Calvo et al. (2007): study US 1992

Eldery, United States, followed through retirement 1992-2004
N = 2389
Non Response
25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Prompt retirement (vs gradual)
Our Classification
Individuals are classified as 'fully employed' if they work at least 30 hours per week and report themselves as 'not retired'. Assessed at T1: 1992, when still working; T2: 2004, when retired. Individuals are classified as 'fully retired' if they have zero hours of work and report themselves 'completely retired'.
1. Prompt/Cold Turkey: 1733 (73%)        
2. Gradual/Phased: 656 (27%)
1: Prompt retirement ("cold turkey"): Ss reported 'not retired' in every wave prior to the wave designated definition
0: Gradual retirement: Subject must have one or more sequential waves with "not retired" responses immediately followed by one or more waves "partly retired" responses, immediately followed by full retirement.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-b DM = 0 ns T1 Happiness
- promt retirement      M=0,295 (SD=0,231)
- gradual retirement    M=0,295 (SD=0,228)
difference                0
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-b DM = -.01 ns T2 Happiness
- prompt retirement      M=0,276 (SD=0,256)
- gradual retirement     M=0,264 (SD=0,269)
difference                -0,012
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-b DM = -.01 ns T1-T2 Difference in Happiness (DM):
- prompt retirement     M=-0,018 (SD=0,235)
- gradual retirement    M=-0,031 (SD=0,242)
difference                 -0,013 (ns)
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-b b = 0 ns T1-T2 CHANGE in Happiness (regression)

B controlled for:
-prompt retirement           
-retirement (partly) wanted           
-spouse death    
-improved health             
-years since retirement      
-white non-hispanic          
-log of mean wealth          
-more than high school