- 13-16 aged students, Hong Kong, 1983-1984.
- N = 1906
- Non Response
- Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
- Authors's Label
- parent orientation
- Our Classification
- Range 3-19. Trichotomized into Low (3-9), Medium (10-13) and High (14-19).
- Parent orientation index as to the degree to which the adolescent feels attached to his parents, consisting of 5 questions.
Observed Relation with Happiness
Low M= 3.54 3.33
Medium M= 4.06 3.99
High M= 4.29 4.21
All M= 4.00 3.76
Differences are significant(.01) for both the younger(Grade 1) and older (Grade 4) students.