Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990

Adults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
N = 90000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Personal freedom
Our Classification
Index of freedom in personal life. It involves absence of restrictions to traveling, religion, maariage, sex and suicide. Both legal restrictions and public acceptance

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW---sq-t-11-a r = +.44 LEVEL OF HAPPINESS by Personal freedom in 39 nations
Level of happiness measured using average score in the country
O-SLW---sq-t-11-a r = -.74 INEQUALITY OF HAPPINESS by Pesronal freedom in 39 nations
Inequality of happiness measured using the standard-deviation of happiness
O-SLW---sq-t-11-a r = +.51 INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HAPPINESS by Personal freedom in 39 nations
Inequality-adjusted happiness measured using index of mean and standard deviation as proposed by Kalmijn & Veenhoven 2005
O-SLW---sq-t-11-a rpc = +.13 rpc controlled for purchasing power per head