Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (2005): study ZZ 1990

Adults, general public, 67 nations, 1990s
N =
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Political freedom
Our Classification
Source: Karantnycky at al. (1995)
Index of suppression of political rights 1994-1995 (reversed)
Expert ratings on 9 item index of political rights: 1. State leader elected through free and fair elections, 2. Legislative representatives elected through free and fair elections, 3. Fair electoral laws, equal campaigning opportunities, fair polling and honest tabulation of ballots, 4. Freely elected representatives have real power, 5. Right to organize in political parties, system open to rise and fall of competing groups, 6. Realistic possibility for opposition, de facto opposition power, 7. National independence, 8. Influence of minority groups, 9. Political power decentralized.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-a r = +.53 Happy life years by political freedom in 63 nations in the 1990s. Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-a rpc = +.13 rpc controlled for purchasing power per head