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Correlational findings

Study Bjornskov (2006a): study ZZ 1995

Public:
18+ aged, general public, 67 nations, 1995-2002
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 70000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Government consumption
Our Classification
Operationalization
Government consumption as % of national consumption.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a = DIFFERENCE IN HAPPINESS between poor and rich citizens by government consumption in 67 nations.

'Poor' is lowest 33%, 'rich highest 33% in self rated income position.
O-SLW-c-sq-l-10-a b = +.01 p < .10 B (+.0,009) controlled for
-GDP per capita
-Openness
-Postcommunist
-Income-inequality
-Regulatory freedom

The more government consumption in a nation, the bigger difference in happiness between poor and rich. Yet among rich and democratic nations government consumption is unrelated to difference in happiness between the rich and the poor.