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Correlational findings

Study Kawamoto & Doi (2002): study JP 1998

Public:
65+ aged, Nomura, Japan, followed 3 years, 1998-2001
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2274
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaire

Correlate

Authors's label
Independence
Our Classification
Operationalization
Abibility to peform basic activities of daily living(ADL)
-Walking
-Climbing up and down the stairs
-Feeding
-Dressing
-Toileting
-Bathing
-Personal hygiene
-Medication
scored 0 (complete depence) to 3 (complete independence)

1 independent  N=1499 (ranking "J")  
0 dependent    N=210  (ranking "A","B","C").

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-?-sq-ol-101-a DM = + p < .001                 T1 happiness
T2 Independent  M = 69.9 SD = 20.2
T2 Dependent    M = 63.5 SD = 23.5
- difference        +6.4
A-AOL-?-sq-ol-101-a DM = + p < .001 T2 Independent  M = 74.6 SD = 29.6
T2 Dependent    M = 63.3 SD = 21.3
- difference       +11.3