- 18+ aged, general public, 78 nations, 1991-2001
- N = 100000
- Non Response
- Interview: face-to-face
- Authors's Label
- Gender Enpowerment Measure (GEM)
- Our Classification
- Source: UN HDR 2004, table 25.
- Range: 0,169 (Pakistan) - 0,803 (Norway).
- GEM measures political and economic participation and decision making by women, access to professional opportunities, and their estimated earned income. Unweigted average of three percentages:
-% parliamentary seats,
-% senior officials and managers, and professional and technical positions,
-% earned income.
Observed Relation with Happiness
Remark: inequality of happiness (SD) by gender equality: r = -.79, meaning that more gender equality goes with less inequality in happiness.