Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990

Adults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
N =
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Value: Autoritarism (Distance from power)
Our Classification
Data: Hofstede, G. : Cultures and organisations, 1991, Table 2.1
Average response to 3 survey questions  among employees of an international company (IBM) in different nations.

a: Answers by nonmanagerial employees on the question: How frequently, in your experience, does the following problem occur: employees being afraid to express disagreement with their managers? (mean score on a 1-5 scale from 'very frequently' to 'very seldom')

b: Subordinates' perception of their boss's actual decision making style (percentage choosing either the description of an autocratic or of a paternalistic style out of 4 possible styles plus a 'none of these' alternative).

c: Subordinates' preference for their boss's decision-making style (percentage preferring an autocratic or a paternalistic style, or, on the contrary, a style based on majority vote, but not a consultative style)

Combined in Power Distance Index

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-a r = -.63 Happy Life Years by Autoritarism in 32 nations Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-a rpc = -.33 rpc controlled for buying power per capita