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Correlational findings

Study VandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986

Public:
Students, 42 countries, 2002
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 14000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire completed in class

Correlate

Authors's label
Other-referenced performance motives (extrinsic motives)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Self-reports on three questions:
A. I try harder when I'm in competition with other people.
B. It is important to me to perform better than others on a task.
C. I feel that winning is important in both work and games.

Average scores of students were used to estimate self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 nations.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum---sq-vt-11-a r = -.55 p < .05 Average happiness by average extrinsic motivation

Negative in developed countries
Slightly positive in developing nations