- Students, 42 countries, 2002
- N = 14000
- Non Response:
Questionnaire completed in class
- Authors's label
- Other-referenced performance motives (extrinsic motives)
- Our Classification
- Self-reports on three questions:
A. I try harder when I'm in competition with other people.
B. It is important to me to perform better than others on a task.
C. I feel that winning is important in both work and games.
Average scores of students were used to estimate self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 nations.
Observed Relation with Happiness
Negative in developed countries
Slightly positive in developing nations