Study VandeVliert & Janssen (2002): study ZZ 1986
- Students, 42 countries, 2002
- N = 14000
- Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class
- Authors's Label
- Self-referenced performance motives (intrinsic motives)
- Our Classification
- Average ambition in 42 nations.
- Males: M=19,25; SD=4,23 Females: M: 18,79; SD=4,16
- Related specification variables
- Self-reports on three questions:
A. If I am not good at something, I would rather keep struggling to master it than move on to something I may be good at.
B. I would rather do something at which I feel confident and relaxed than something which is challenging and difficult (reversed scoring).
C. I more often attempt tasks that I am not sure I can do than tasks I believe I can do.
Average scores of students were used to estimate self-referenced motivation at national levels in 42 nations.
Observed Relation with Happiness
Stronger in developed countries