Correlational findings

Study VandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1

General public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
N = 42
Non Response:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's label
Gender gap in competitiveness
Our Classification
Difference in attitude of female and male university students.
Competitiveness was assessed with responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= strongly agree

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a r = +.35 p < .05 Greater happiness in nations were women are less competitive O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a b = +.28 p < .05 B ontrolled for:
- societal development (HDI
- overall competitiveness
O-Sum---sq-nt-11-a = .05 p < .10 5% additional variance explained when entered after societal development and overall competitiveness