Correlational findings

Study VandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1

General public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
N = 42
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's Label
Gender gap in competitiveness
Our Classification
Data: international student survey (Lynn 1991)
M = 0.68, SD = 0.80
8 countries with a negative gender gap (women more competitive then men): range -1.36 to .01 7 ns, Iraq= p<05
Positive gender gap in 34 countries. Range 0.12 to 2.30; 14 countries ns, 20 countries p<05
Difference in attitude of female and male university students.
Competitiveness was assessed with responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= strongly agree

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a r = +.35 p < .05 Greater happiness in nations were women are less competitive O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a b = +.28 p < .05 B ontrolled for:
- societal development (HDI
- overall competitiveness
O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a = .05 p < .10 5% additional variance explained when entered after societal development and overall competitiveness