Correlational findings

Study VandeVliert & Janssen (2002a): study ZZ 1986 /1

General public and students, 42 nations, 1986-1989
N = 42
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's Label
Overall competitiveness
Our Classification
Error Estimates
r=+.90 between female and male responses, r=+.73 p<.01 (between responses in 21 more and 21 less developed countries)
Data: International student survey (Lynn 1991)
All: M= 12,10, SD=1,73 Women: M  = 11,76  SD= 1.85, Men M=12,44 SD= 1,6.
Related specification variables
Attitude of university students:
Average of the summed mean female responses and male responses to the following 5 items:
-I try harder when I am in competition with other people
-It is important to me to perform better than others to a task
-I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others
-I feel that winning is important in both work and games
-It annoys me when other people perform better than I do
Assessed on a 5 point scale: 0=strongly disagree to 4= strongly agree

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a r = -.55 p < .001 Nations as unit of analysis: Average happiness by average compititiveness O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a b = -.31 p < .10 B controlled for societal development as measured with the Human Development Index
(8% additional variance in happiness explained)
O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a b = +.28 p < .10 B controled for gender gap in competition
(5% additional variance in happiness explained after societal development and and overall competitiveness)
O-Sum-*-sq-nt-11-a b = +.26 p < .10 Interaction effect with gender gap.
No less happiness in nations were men are competitive, but women less so (large gender gap)
Much less happiness in nations were both men and women are competitive (small gender gap)
(6% additional variance in happiness explained)