Correlational findings

Study Perneger et al. (2004): study CH 1998

University students, Switzerland, 1998.
Survey name:
Unnamed study
N = 1257
Non Response:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaire


Authors's label
Mental health
Our Classification
Mental health summary score (Ware & Kosinski,, 1996)
Self-report on six questions

'During the past four weeks, have you had any of the following problems with your work or other regular daily activities as a result of any emotional problems (such as feeling depressed or anxious)?'

-Accomplished less than you would like?
-Didn't do work or other activities as carefully as usual?
(Responses are either 'yes' or 'no')

During the last four weeks, give the one answer that comes closest to the way you have been feeling.
-Have you felt calm and peaceful?
-Did you have a lot of energy?
-Have you felt downhearted and blue?
(Six point response scale)
6 All of the time
5 Most of the time
4 A good bit of the time
3 Some of the time
2 A little of the time
1 None of the time

'During the past four weeks, how much of the time has your physical health or emotional problems interfered with your social activities (like visiting with friends, relatives, etc.)?'
(Five point response scale)
5 All of the time
4 Most of the time
1 None of the time

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-a D% = + p < .001 % happy (all or most of the time)
Lowest quartile :  15,9
2nd quartile    :  59,9
3rd quartile    :  81,9
Highest quartile:  93,0
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-a OR = +                           OR     CI 95
Lowest quartile           1      -
2nd quartile              6,8    4,5 - 10,1
3rd quartile              19,2   12,2- 30,2
Highest quartile          39,9   22,4- 71,0

Odds ratio controlled for:
-physical health
-intimate contact (love and affection)
-sex (women vs. men)
-nationality (Swiss vs. Other)