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Correlational findings

Study Koivumaa-Honkanen et al. (2003): study FI 1976

Public:
Adults, Finland, 1976-1995
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 29067
Non Response:
16%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaires: - T1 (1975): health questionnaire, happiness - T2 (1981: only to twins, health, happiness - T3 (1990): only to twins, health, happiness, Beck Depression Inventory - The Finnish cause of death registry was used to identify suicides(T1-T3)

Correlate

Authors's label
Depression
Our Classification
Operationalization
Beck depression inventory(BDI)
0 BDI<10    : normal
1 BDI 10-18 : mild depression
2 BDI>18    : severe depression

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-5-j F = +164 p < .001 Statistics computed from cross table

N(COLUMM %)
             0            1          2
Happy        8,051(93%)  870(64%)    85(27%)
cannot say   388          171        40
Unhappy      199          320        190

Multiple comparison test: 0>1>2