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Correlational findings

Study Steca et al. (2004): study IT 1990

Public:
Elementary school students followed 10 years, Italy,199?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 306
Non Response:
76/114
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
T1, T2: Prosocial behavior scale in self report and teacher rating, Emotional instability scale in self report and teacher rating, Physical and verbal aggression scale in self report and teacher rating, and peer nomination relative to popularity and refuse in the class T3. T4: Prosocial behavior scale in self report, Emotional instability scale in self report, Physical and verbal aggression scale in self report, peer nomination relative to popularity and refuse in the class, academic achievement, social and academic self-efficacy beliefs T5, T6: Satisfaction with life scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Life-orientation test, and positive and negative affect scale

Correlate

Authors's label
Developmental pathways
Our Classification
Operationalization
Development since T1
A.Positive-stable
  from well-adapted to well-adapted  
B Negative-stable:
  passing from ill-adapted to ill-adapted  
C Worsening:
  from well-adapted clusters to ill-adapted
D Improvement:
  from ill-adapted clusters to well-adapted

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BW-?-mq-?-0-a DM = + T2 happiness        T3 happiness
A: M=1.47, SD=.83   M=1.56, SD=1.22
B: M=0.96, SD=.75   M=1.42, SD=1.03
C: M=0.80, SD=.91   M=1.13, SD=1.09
D: M=1.63, SD=.62   M=1.78, SD= .86
A-BW-?-mq-?-0-a BMCT = p < .01 At T2: A,B >C A-BW-?-mq-?-0-a BMCT = ns At T3