Correlational findings

Study McKinley Runyan (1980): study US 1932

Highschool pupils, Oakland, USA, 1932, followed from age 12 to 38, 1959
N = 91
Non Response
Multiple assesment methods
Lengthy, tests and school photographs. Participants were asked to rate the level of satisfaction in each year of their past life on a graph with values ranging from 1 (low) to 9 (high) and to write in the events and conditions associated with these ratings ("We would like for you to think over your life and then rate each year as to whether it was a high or a low point in your life, i.e., your overall feeling, not necessarily financial success or health, etc., but generally speaking feeling of well-being however determined".)


Authors's Label
Upward social mobility
Our Classification
Mobile Ss only.
Downward: N=14
Upward: N= 53
Non-mobile: N=24
Mobility is difference between social class of father in 1929 and own class in 1958.
1. Downwardly or non-mobile.
2. Upwardly mobile.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-cy-sq-lg-9-a DM = + ns No difference in current happiness (T2).

Slight difference in recalled happiness at earlier ages.
Upwardly mobile recall less happiness in youth than non-mobile and downwardly mobile.