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Correlational findings

Study Abdel-Khalek (2006a): study KW 2002 /1

Public:
University undergraduates, Kuwait 2002
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 503
Non Response:
Assessment:

Questionnaire completed in class

Correlate

Authors's label
Pessimism
Our Classification
Operationalization
The Pessimism subscale of ths Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism (Abdel-Khalek 1996, 198a). It contains 15 statements that are answered on a 5-point Likert- type scale.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-FH-g-sq-ol-11-a r = -.45 p < .001 All
males  : r = -.34 (001)
females: r = -.51 (001)