Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's label
Experience of time
Our Classification
Time Metaphor Test, in which 214 meta- phors concerning time were rated in terms of their closeness or distance from the subject's experience of time. Several scales derived.

1.  Descending vs ascending

2.  Decomposition vs composition

3.  A bad vs a good person

4.  A dark vs bright future

5.  Monotonous, barren and empty vs   harmony and complexity

6.  Passive vs active

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 a. The happy men experience time in terms of ascending, upwardly soaring images: 'a soaring bird', 'a mountain flame of hope'.
The unhappy men experience time in terms of descending, declining images: 'a flower falling to the mold', 'the grave of aspiration'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 b. The happy men experience time as organic composition, growth and fertility: 'a succession of new forms', 'pregnancy and birth'.
The unhappy men experience time as decomposition, deterioration, corruption, and decay: 'a rotting tree trunk', 'dust setting in an ancient house'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 c. The happy men personify time as a good person, a beneficent friend and wise teacher: 'the voice of encouragement', 'the wisest of counselors'.
The unhappy men personify time as a bad person, a malevolent adversary and opponent: 'the old bad cheater', 'a chronic thief', 'a relentless antagonist'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 d. For the happy men a bright future lies ahead, with favorable anticipation of gain and increase: 'a promising career', 'good prospects'.
For the unhappy men a dark future lies ahead, with unfavorable anticipation, and dreaded
foreboding: 'future misfortune', 'increasing darkness'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 e. The happy men experience a sense of harmony in time, with active order and rhythmic pace in its complexity: 'the order of nature', 'a harmony of wishes'.
The unhappy men experience a sense of monotony in time. It is slow, tedious, barren and empty: 'the marching of tired feet', 'a retarded clock', 'an empty room'.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 f. The happy men experience time as the setting for active oriented effort: 'the thrust of forward purpose', 'continuity of aim'.
The unhappy men express a feeling of passive subjection to time; it is something they cannot  master or control to their own  purposes: 'boredom unrelieved', 'something you can never stop', 'something you are never ready