Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's label
Organization of time
Our Classification
Temporal Behavior Questionnaire, in which 201 ways of experiencing, arrang- ing, and estimating time in work, daily activities, and fantasies were rated in terms of the degree to which the subject was characteristically disposed or not disposed to engage in them. Several scales derived.

a. Unfilled vs filled time perspective.
b. Life is felt as dicrete vs    continuous.

c. Procrastinating and inefficient vs punctual and efficient use of time.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 a. Unfilled vs filled time perspective. The
happy men commit and hold themselves to responsibilities and they plan and schedule their time far in advance.
The unhappy men shy away from long-term responsibilities and keep the future open and uncommitted. They are anxious about the unknown future.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 b. The happy men are aware of enduring themes and patterns in their life, and have a strong sense of their own identity.
The unhappy men experience event vs as discrete, and life as a series of abrupt transformations. For them time is broken, chopped up, and without direction.

A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 c. The happy men work efficiently without wasting time and energy. They can manage each day to do  everything they want to do.
The unhappy men never begin or finish a task on time. They procrastinate too long, and feel themselves working below capacity.