Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's label
Normal introversion
Our Classification
Fusion factor indicative of social withdrawal or disturbed introversion (with shy, seclusive, submissive, guil- ty, depressed, masochistic personali- ties) vs social participation or normal extraversion (with poised, sociable,
dominant, confident and spontaneous personalities).
(Fusion Factor A fromt he MMPI Scales: see Kassebaum et al., 1959).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + s Average hedonic level correlated significantly with  a number of the MMPI scales. There were large negative correlations with most of the scales indicative of psychopathology.
Data were not fully presented.