Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's label
Psycho-social development
Our Classification
Analysis of individual items from a 60- item Q sort, filled out both in very elated and in very depressed moods for both self-concept ('an accurate picture of yourself as you honestly feel and be- lieve you are') and ideal-concept ('the picture of the sort of person you have hoped to become or fancied yourself to be').

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 The unhappy men were more concerned, in both their real-self and ideal-self, with Erikson's fourth development crisis Industry vs Inferiori- ty, while the happy men were more concerned with the sixth stage Intimacy vs Isolation.
(See also 'Congruency between Real and Ideal Self-Image', and 'Content of Self-Image'; S 2.1.1 and S 2.2).