- Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
- N = 17
- Non Response:
- 37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple assesment methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.
- Authors's Label
- Psycho-social stagesof development
- Our Classification
- Self-description made both in very elated and in very depressed moods. ('an accurate picture of yourself as your honestly feel and believe you are'.)
- 60-item Q sort, describing characteris- tics indicative of successful and un- successsful resolutions of the first six developmental crisis of Erikson's stages of psycho-social development (see Erikson, 1959).
There were 5 items indicative of suc- cessful and 5 items indicative of un- successful resolution for each of the six stages. The subjeect was instructed to fit the set of items into a forced, seminormal distribution on a 7-point scale ranging from 'least characteris- tic' to 'most characteristic'.
1A. Successful oral sensory:
Placid and untroubled / accessible
to new ideas / imperturbable opti-
mist / able to take things as they
come / deep, unshakable faith in
1B. Unsuccessful oral sensory:
Incapable of absorbing frustration
and everything frustrates him /
can't share things with anybody /
pessimistic, little hope / dim nos-
talgia for lost paradise / never
gets what he really wants.
2A. Successful muscular anal:
Values independence above securi-
ty / free and spontaneous / stands
on his own two feet / quietly goes
his own way / good judge of when to
comply and when to assert himself.
2B. Unsuccessful muscular anal:
shame and doubt.
An automatic response to all situ-
ations / meticulous and over-orga-
nized / cautious, hesitant, doubt-
ing / feels as if he were being
followed / always in the wrong,
3A. Successful locomotor genital:
Adventuresome / dynamic / ambit-
ious / inventive, delights in find-
ing new solutions to new problems /
3B. Unsuccessful locomotor genital:
Sexually blunted / afraid to impot-
ence / thinks too much about the
wrong things / big smoke but no
fire / inhibited and self-restrict-
4A. Successful latency:
Conscientious and hard working /
interested in learning and likes to
study / serious, has high stand-
ards / accomplishes much, truly
productive / excels in his work.
4B. Unsuccessful latency:
Can't fulfill his ambitions / does-
n't apply himsel fully / fritters
away his time / ineffective, does-
n't amount to much / a playboy, al-
ways 'hacking' around.
5A. Successful puberty adolescence:
Confidence is brimming over / natu-
ral and genuine / poised / knows
who he is and what he wants out of
life / pride in his own character
5B. Unsuccessful puberty and adolescen-
ce: role diffusion.
A poseur, all facade and pretence /
spreads himself thin / attempts to
appear at ease / never knows he
feels / afraid of commitment.
6A. Successful young adulthood:
Candid, not afraid to expose him-
self / warm and friendly / has
sympathetic concern for others /
tactful in interpersonal relat-
ions / comfortable in intimate re-
6B. Unsuccessful young adulthood:
Little regard for the rest of the
world / pre-occupied with himself /
very lonely / cold and remote / se-
cretly oblivious of the opinions of