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Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Public:
Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.

Correlate

Authors's label
Psycho-social stagesof development
Our Classification
Operationalization
60-item Q sort, describing characteris- tics indicative of successful and un- successsful resolutions of the first six developmental crisis of Erikson's stages of psycho-social development (see Erikson, 1959).
There were 5 items indicative of suc- cessful and 5 items indicative of un- successful resolution for each of the six stages. The subjeect was instructed to fit the set of items into a forced, seminormal distribution on a 7-point scale ranging from 'least characteris- tic' to 'most characteristic'.


1A. Successful oral sensory:
    basic trust.
    Placid and untroubled / accessible
    to new ideas / imperturbable opti-
    mist / able to take things as they
    come / deep, unshakable faith in
    himself.

1B. Unsuccessful oral sensory:
    basic mistrust.
    Incapable of absorbing frustration
    and everything frustrates him /
    can't share things with anybody /
    pessimistic, little hope / dim nos-
    talgia for lost paradise / never
    gets what he really wants.

2A. Successful muscular anal:
    autonomy.
    Values independence above securi-
    ty / free and spontaneous / stands
    on his own two feet / quietly goes
    his own way / good judge of when to
    comply and when to assert himself.

2B. Unsuccessful muscular anal:
    shame and doubt.
    An automatic response to all situ-
    ations / meticulous and over-orga-
    nized / cautious, hesitant, doubt-
    ing / feels as if he were being
    followed / always in the wrong,
    apologetic.

3A. Successful locomotor genital:
    initiative.
    Adventuresome / dynamic / ambit-
    ious / inventive, delights in find-
    ing new solutions to new problems /
    sexually aware.

3B. Unsuccessful locomotor genital:
    guilt.
    Sexually blunted / afraid to impot-
    ence / thinks too much about the
    wrong things / big smoke but no
    fire / inhibited and self-restrict-
    ed.

4A. Successful latency:
    industry.
    Conscientious and hard working /
    interested in learning and likes to
    study / serious, has high stand-
    ards / accomplishes much, truly
    productive / excels in his work.

4B. Unsuccessful latency:
    inferiority.
    Can't fulfill his ambitions / does-
    n't apply himsel fully / fritters
    away his time / ineffective, does-
    n't amount to much / a playboy, al-
    ways 'hacking' around.

5A. Successful puberty adolescence:
    identity.
    Confidence is brimming over / natu-
    ral and genuine / poised / knows
    who he is and what he wants out of
    life / pride in his own character
    and values.

5B. Unsuccessful puberty and adolescen-
    ce: role diffusion.
    A poseur, all facade and pretence /
    spreads himself thin / attempts to
    appear at ease / never knows he
    feels / afraid of commitment.

6A. Successful young adulthood:
    intimacy.
    Candid, not afraid to expose him-
    self / warm and friendly /  has
    sympathetic concern for others /
    tactful in interpersonal relat-
    ions / comfortable in intimate re-
    lationships.

6B. Unsuccessful young adulthood:
    isolation.
    Little regard for the rest of the
    world / pre-occupied with himself /
    very lonely / cold and remote / se-
    cretly oblivious of the opinions of
    others.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.21 ns 1A.Basic trust: in elation A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.44 ns                 in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.56 p < .05 1B. Basic mistrust: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.86 p < .05                     in depression







A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.03 ns 2A. Autonomy: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.50 p < .05               in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.45 ns 2B. Shame and doubt: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.74 p < .05                      in depression







A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.63 p < .05 3A. Initiative: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.66 p < .05                 in depression





A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.28 ns 3B. Guilt: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.39 ns            in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.62 p < .05 4A. Industry: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.48 p < .05               in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.56 p < .05 4B. Inferiority: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.62 p < .05                  in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.42 ns 5A. Identity: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.54 p < .05               in depression






A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.26 ns 5B. Role diffusion: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.23 ns                     in depression





A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.67 p < .05 6A. Intimacy: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = +.69 p < .05               in depression







A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.71 p < .05 6B. Isolation: in elation
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = -.66 p < .05                in depression