Correlational findings

Study Koivumaa-Honkanen (1998): study FI 1975

18-64 aged adult twin pairs, Finland, 1975
N = 29444
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Mailed questionnaire


Authors's Label
Baseline health
Our Classification
Data on baseline health was provided by three sources; 1) The portal questionnaire in 1975, 2) Information on specially refunded medication during 1964-1975, 3) Information on hospitalizations during 1972-1975 collected from The Hospital Discharge Registry
0: 43.8%, 1: 56.2%
Related specification variables

A Person was categorized as sick if he/she had(source of data):
1. Hospitalization during 1972-1975 due to psychiatric reasons,skin diseases or injuries
2. Breathlessness when walking on level ground at an ordinary pace with those of the same age
3. History of severe chest pain(the pain lasted half an hour or more)
4. Reported diagnosis of emphysema, asthma, myocardial infarction or stroke
5. Been using analgesics ten or more days during the year preceding 1975
6. Been using hypnotics or tranquillizers during the year preceding 1975
7. Entitlement to specially refunded medication in 1964-75
8. Work status, either unemployed or retired(due to age, work disability or illness)
9. History of change of a job due to illness
10. History of unemployment due to illness or injury

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-5-j DM = + p < .001 All
0: M=3.71, CI95[3.69-3.73], Mt=6.78
1: M=3.98, CI95[3.97-3.99], Mt=7.45
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-j DM = - p < .001 Men
0: M=3.66, CI95[3.64-3.68], Mt=6.65
1: M=3.50, CI95[3.93-3.96], Mt=6.25
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-j DM = + p < .001 Women
0: M=3.75, CI95[3.64-3.68], Mt=6.88
1: M=4.02, CI95[4.01-4.04], Mt=7.23