Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple assesment methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's Label
Feelings of failure to fulfill ambitions
Our Classification
Content analysis of a 60-item Q sort, filled out both in very elated and in very depressed moods for self-concept ('an accurate picture of yourself as you honestly feel and believe you are!)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = - p < .05 Analysis on the basis of comparison between 9 re- latively happy and 8 relatively unhappy males, both in elation and in depression.

The unhappy men appeared to be more ambitious, but are also less able to fulfill their ambitions. Especially in depression they feel ineffective, unable to get what they want, pessimistic, and unable to absorb frustration.