- Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
- N = 17
- Non Response
- 37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple assesment methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.
- Authors's Label
- Feelings of failure to fulfill ambitions
- Our Classification
- Content analysis of a 60-item Q sort, filled out both in very elated and in very depressed moods for self-concept ('an accurate picture of yourself as you honestly feel and believe you are!)
Observed Relation with Happiness
The unhappy men appeared to be more ambitious, but are also less able to fulfill their ambitions. Especially in depression they feel ineffective, unable to get what they want, pessimistic, and unable to absorb frustration.