Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's label
Self-confidence (vs inadequacy)
Our Classification
Repeated closed question on 'how self-
assured and adequate, or helpless and
inadequate, you felt', rated on a 10-point scale:

10. Nothing is impossible to me. Can do
    anything I want.
9. Feel remarkable self-assurance.
    Sure of my superior powers.
8. Highly confident of my capabilities
7. Feel my abilities sufficient and my
    prospects good.
6. Feel fairly adequate.
5. Feel my performance and capabili-
    ties somewhat limited.
4. Feel rather inadequate.
3. Distressed by my weakness and lack
    of ability.
2. Wretched and miserable. Sick of my
    own incompetence.
1. Crushing sense of weakness and
    futility. I can do nothing.

Scale scored each night for the highest, lowest and average experience of the day.
Wessman & Ricks Self-confidence vs feeling of Inadequacy Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 The means of the lowest, average and highest daily scores were correlated with the mean average score on the Elation-Depression Scale (AFF 3.1) of 6 weeks.

Daily highest   : r = +.73 (05)
Daily average   : r = +.77 (05)
Daily lowest    : r = +.37 (ns)