- Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
- N = 17
- Non Response:
- 37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.
- Authors's label
- Self-confidence (vs inadequacy)
- Our Classification
- Repeated closed question on 'how self-
assured and adequate, or helpless and
inadequate, you felt', rated on a 10-point scale:
10. Nothing is impossible to me. Can do
anything I want.
9. Feel remarkable self-assurance.
Sure of my superior powers.
8. Highly confident of my capabilities
7. Feel my abilities sufficient and my
6. Feel fairly adequate.
5. Feel my performance and capabili-
ties somewhat limited.
4. Feel rather inadequate.
3. Distressed by my weakness and lack
2. Wretched and miserable. Sick of my
1. Crushing sense of weakness and
futility. I can do nothing.
Scale scored each night for the highest, lowest and average experience of the day.
Wessman & Ricks Self-confidence vs feeling of Inadequacy Scale).
Observed Relation with Happiness
Daily highest : r = +.73 (05)
Daily average : r = +.77 (05)
Daily lowest : r = +.37 (ns)