Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple assesment methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's Label
Personal freedom vs external constraint
Our Classification
Repeated closed question on 'how much you felt you were free or not free to do as you wanted', rated on a 10-point scale:

10. Absolutely free to consider and try
    any new and adventuresome prospect.
9. Independent and free to do as I
8. Ample scope to go my own way.
7. Free, within broad limits, to act
    much as I want to.
6. Can do a good deal on my own ini-
    tiative and in my own fashion. No
    particularly restrictive limita-
5. Somewhat constrained and hampered.
    Not free to do things my own way.
4. Checked and hindered by too many
    demands and constraints.
3. Hemmed in. Cooped up. Forced to do
    things I don't want to do.
2. Trapped, oppressed.
1. Overwhelmed, smothered. Can't draw
    a free breath.

Scale scored each night for the highest, lowest and average experience of the day.
(Wessman & Ricks Personal Freedom vs External Constraint Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + ns The means of the lowest, average and highest daily scores were correlated with the mean daily average score on the Elation-Depression Scale (AFF 3.1) during 6 weeks.

Daily highest   : r = +.36 (ns)
Daily average   : r = +.15 (ns)
Daily lowest    : r = -.18 (ns)