- Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
- N = 17
- Non Response
- 37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple assesment methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.
- Authors's Label
- Personal freedom vs external constraint
- Our Classification
- Repeated closed question on 'how much you felt you were free or not free to do as you wanted', rated on a 10-point scale:
10. Absolutely free to consider and try
any new and adventuresome prospect.
9. Independent and free to do as I
8. Ample scope to go my own way.
7. Free, within broad limits, to act
much as I want to.
6. Can do a good deal on my own ini-
tiative and in my own fashion. No
particularly restrictive limita-
5. Somewhat constrained and hampered.
Not free to do things my own way.
4. Checked and hindered by too many
demands and constraints.
3. Hemmed in. Cooped up. Forced to do
things I don't want to do.
2. Trapped, oppressed.
1. Overwhelmed, smothered. Can't draw
a free breath.
Scale scored each night for the highest, lowest and average experience of the day.
(Wessman & Ricks Personal Freedom vs External Constraint Scale).
Observed Relation with Happiness
Daily highest : r = +.36 (ns)
Daily average : r = +.15 (ns)
Daily lowest : r = -.18 (ns)